Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) is a new technology that allows both 4G (LTE) and 5G to use and operate within the same spectrum at the same time, which means 5G and 4G use one spectrum band. For example, with DSS, With DSS, an operator let’s say with 20 MHz of the spectrum have a dedicated spectrum for both 4G and 5G simultaneously. But, without DSS, an operator with a 20MHz spectrum would have to split the spectrum into two, like 10 MHz for 4G LTE and another 10 MHz for 5G.
In the DSS, the resources are allocated dynamically among two different technologies based on device distribution & capacity requirements – DSS is applicable to operate frequency range 1 (FR1) whereas the 4G bands can operate below 6GHz.
With DSS, spectrum reframing from 2G to 3G to LTE to 5G is now faster than earlier. There was a time when spectrum reframing from one network to another was a slow, complex process, and expensive, now spectrum reframing from LTE to 5G will be simpler with DSS. Dynamic Spectrum Sharing or DSS provides better 5G coverage to the end user and facilitates a smooth evolution from one technology to another.
So, now let investigate setting your expectations when testing dynamic spectrum sharing along with User-friendly 4G Tester, 4G LTE Tester, 4G Network Tester and VOLTE Testing tools & Equipment and User-friendly Best wireless site survey software, site survey tools for wireless networks & Wifi site survey software app in detail.
Motivation: DSS is the most feasible technology that can motivate and enable deploying 5G networks quickly with a faster way and affordable process of spectrum re-farming from one generation to the other. Some of the benefits are –
- DSS allows 5G NR to get an advantage from the low band spectrum (<1 GHz) that offers a greater coverage as compared to the mid/high-frequency bands.
- DSS technology functions in such a way that reduces cost and time-to-market, especially for the mobile operators as they will experience this benefit when launching 5G NR. MNOs will not require to spend on the new spectrum and not want new or upgraded UE hardware.
- With DSS, the combination of NR to LTE users can monitor and manage without investing for dedicated 5G NR channels.
Techniques: DSS requires dynamic control on the dedicated LTE and/or 5G that can enable what amount of spectrum can be used. Here come DSS techniques in which the system configuration and scheduling can avoid NR/LTE simultaneously transmitting inter-numerology interference between NR and LTE. Some of the techniques are –
- To cope with LTE’s several ‘always on’ signals with fixed time-frequency resource allocation, rate matching patterns (NR, DL only) are defined either with resource element (RE) granularity or symbol granularity.
- Time-division multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) NR-LTE separation is done through scheduling and configuration granularity for DL/UL to avoid collision between LTE and 5G NR – this technique is only possible to use for UL.
Initial testing: The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) provides a control for DSS implementation, hence, the testing of DSS impact both on LTE and 5G NR performance is vital to ensure that optimal capacity and throughput are achieved at eNB/gNB and UE level, smooth eNB-gNB-UE interoperability. A few of the following things need to be kept in mind while performing these tests.
- The switch to 5G NR can happen in the case of low bandwidth spectrum (< 1GHx) and if the LTE anchor at mid-bandwidth spectrum (1GHz – 6GHz) is co-located with the LTE low bandwidth spectrum then it can be shared with 5G NR.
- In the case of low bandwidth spectrum, 5G NR has available a low bandwidth (5- 15MHz) when compared to LTE 20MHz+, 40MHz+, or when carrier aggregation (CA) is configured.
The DSS technology for 5G will be used as part of a strategy when it comes to testing. 5G network testing is equally important to provide stable network connectivity to the users. RantCell is one of the great apps (for network monitoring and measurement) that can be installed in smart devices to perform the test even seating at your place or remotely. MNOs are taking advantage of using the RantCell tool due to easy usage, low cost, scalability, etc.